Extinguish any sparks if the patient's clothes are smouldering. Ascertain if he is breathing, and send for a doctor at once. If apparently not breathing, proceed as detailed hereunder:
When the patient revives, he should be kept lying down and not allowed to get up or be raised under any circumstances unless on the advice of a Doctor. If the Doctor has not arrived by the time the patient has revived, he should be given some stimulant, or a drink of hot ginger, tea or coffee. The patient should then have any other injuries attended to and be kept warm, being placed in the most comfortable position.
Direct Artificial respiration is the method whereby a person ventilates the lungs of an unconscious non-breathing victim by blowing his own breath directly into the mouth or nose of the victim.
In case of infants and small children tilt the head fully back, surround the mouth and nose completely with your mouth. Blow with only enough force to produce a visible rise in the victim's chest and no more. Repeat every 3 seconds.
Continue direct artificial respiration until victim breathes for himself, or until expert help is obtained.
Step (1) Lay the victim flat on his / her back and place a roll of clothing under the shoulders to ensure that his head is thrown well back. Tilt the victim's head back so that the chin points straight upward.
Step (2) Grasp the victim's jaw as in the Figure, and raise it upward until the lower teeth are higher than the upper teeth; or place finger on both sides of the jaw, near the ear lobes, and pull upward. Maintain jaw position throughout artificial respiration to prevent the tongue from blocking the air passage.
Step (3) Take a deep breath and place your mouth over the victim's mouth as in Figure. Making airtight contact. Pinch the victim's nose shut with thumb and forefinger. If you dislike direct contact, place a porous cloth between you and the victim's mouth. For an infant, place your mouth over its mouth and nose.
Step (4) Blow into the victim's mouth (gently in the case of an infant) until his chest rises. Remove your mouth, & release the hold on his nose, to let him exhale, turning your head to hear the out-rush of air. The first eight to ten breaths should be as rapid as the victim responds. Thereafter the rate should be slowed to about 12 times a minute (20 times for an infant).
Note: (a) if air cannot be blown in, check the position of the victim's head and jaw and re-check the mouth for obstructions, then try again more forcefully. If the chest still does not rise, turn the victim's face down and strike his back sharply to dislodge obstructions.
(b) Sometimes air enters the victim's stomach, as evidenced by a swelling stomach. Expel air by gently pressing the stomach during the exhalation period.
In any case where external cardiac compression and artificial respiration are being administered Pressure-Cycling mechanical resuscitators shall not be used in lieu of mouth-to-mouth or other approval artificial respiration, because they may not be effective in adequately ventilating the lungs with air (oxygen).
Oxygen is the element most vital for survival. Permanent brain damage or death may result within a few minutes from lack of air or oxygen. Therefore a victim's breathing requirements must receive your first attention.
In either case an open air passage to the lungs must be maintained. The human tongue is as large as a quarter pound beefsteak. The muscles of the tongue relax with loss of consciousness. In certain positions the tongue may fall back, obstructing the throat and cutting off the air passage.
Many accident victims, especially those sustaining head injuries (common in home and traffic accidents), suffer temporary shock and loss of consciousness. This may lead to death by suffocation.
Accidental death may be avoided in such cases by first taking a simple pre- caution:
The victim may be assisted by direct artificial respiration, timing the air inflation with the patient's breathing efforts.
If the victim is a child, turn him over your knees in the "spanking position", with his head lower than his hips, slap him between shoulder blades in an attempt to dislodge the foreign body by causing him to cough it out. If the object is not dislodged and the child is in distress, quickly clean the throat with the fingers and begin direct artificial respiration.
The technique of direct artificial respiration is essentially the same in cases involving children and adults. However, in the case of infants and children: