Difference between AC & DC
Single Phase AC
Three Phase AC
Resistance, Reactance and Impedance
Facets of Energy
Sources of Generation
Generation of Electricity
Constructional Features of PT
Net & Gross Metering
Fuse Wire Table
Size of Earth lead
Size of Earth lead
Station Battery Maintainence
Calculation of VR
11KV UG cable VR
Calculation of Power loss and VR
Basic checks of Relays
BEE Star Labels
Sources of Power Generation
Wind power or wind energy is use of air flow through wind turbines to provide mechanical power to turn electric generators.
Wind energy describes the process by which wind is used to generate electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. A generator can convert mechanical power in to electricity.
The kinetic energy of the rotating wind turbine helps to harness wind energy which is one of the easiest sources of renewable energy available in plenty of amounts.
The energy in the wind turns two or three propellers like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to main shaft, which spins generator to create electricity.
It is less expensive in comparison with other energy sources because it is easily available everywhere, especially in exiting farms, ranches, seabed, seashores, and hilly areas.
This source of energy doesn't produce pollution however negligible amounts of water or air pollution may happen during the time of maintenance.
The turbine used in recent times is costly as compared to the age-old windmill because of its sturdiness, power, and noiselessness. Producing electricity energy by using wind power is limited to windy areas because the set-up cannot be installed everywhere, particularly on those areas where speed of wind is very slow.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from sun is harnessed using technologies such as solar heating , photovoltaic, solar thermal energy.
Solar energy refers to capturing energy from the Sun and subsequently converting it into electricity. We can then use it for lighting houses, streets and business, and power our machines as well.
This energy can easily be converted into electrical energy with the help of photovoltaic cells which have the characteristic to produce electric current when sunlight strikes on to their surface.
These PV cells are totally made up of silicon which is the second most abundant element found on earth. PVs don't produce pollution and require less maintenance.
Residential and commercial property owners can install solar hot water systems and design their building with passive solar heating in mind to fully take advantage of sun’s energy with solar technology.
After the life of PVs, they are recyclable and don't create environmental pollution.
One limitation of PVs is that these cells generate electric current when sun is shining.
They cannot work in rainy season, snowfall and cloudy weather.
3.Bio Mass Energy:
Biomass power is carbon neutral electricity generated from renewable organic waste that would otherwise dumped in landfills , openly burned, or left as fodder for forest fires. When burned, the energy in biomass is released as heat.
It helps to generate electricity by wood, harvest residues, crops, urban refuse, and methane gas which are known as Biomass.
The reason for using biomass is that it is a convenient medium to store energy that produces electricity on-demand. This type of energy doesn't produce enough carbon dioxide if it is used on small-scale. But, a large scale use might cause significant influence to the environment.
The vast lands are required to grow more trees or crops that can be used as biomass-fuels.
The combustion of wood is not favourable at all times, especially because of increasing pollution. Waste is not a good option for producing large-scale electricity. It is not considered as the true source of renewable energy.
4. Hydro Electricity:
Water is available in plenty of amounts on earth. The kinetic energy of flowing water can be used to rotate turbines that on the other hand produce hydroelectricity.
It is an eco-friendly process of generating electricity which doesn't pollute environment and produces electricity on-demand. The construction of dams has deep concern on the ecological system, especially in up and downstream.
The capacity of electricity produced depends on size of the dams which are either large or small hydroelectric projects. A large hydroelectric project involves building a huge dam on a river, which in turn requires storing river basin to make a big reservoir.
The small hydroelectric project produces less megawatts of electricity in comparison with large project. It has fewer environmental impacts in compared to large dam. The small dam is not able to produce on-demand electricity. Another limitation is that it has uneven flow of water.
The nuclear power, the energy is harnessed by the power that constrains in the nuclei of the atoms. At first instance nuclear power seems more appealing because of low emissions and less land uses.
Many limitations came into light after thoroughly studying its major health risks and safety concerns.
The nuclear lifecycle involves the mining of uranium ore, releasing radon, and producing large amounts of radioactive waste rock.
Since uranium ore cannot be used directly therefore it goes through highly energy-intensive process that fabricates it into fuel rods.
The energy in nuclear power plants is produced through either fission reactions or fusion reactions. In both of the cases, a huge amount of heat is generated that helps to create steam which in turn rotates turbines and produces electricity.
One drawback is that it produces harmful radiation which is life-threatening and extremely dangerous to health. It may cause cancer, genetic mutations, acute illness or even death at high doses.
It is non- biodegradable and stays in the atmosphere for thousands of years. No easy method of decomposing nuclear waste is available these days. Much of the waste is added in the environment because of decommissioning of the old nuclear power plants.
6.Natural Gas Electricity:
The natural gases come from buried organic matters thousands of years back they have undergone very high pressure and temperature.
This is non-renewable source of energy.This kind of fuel can be found with oil, coal or even alone.
This is available on offshore sites. Since this gas cannot be used directly, it is refined. This refined gas is used to create steam which in turn rotates turbines to produce electricity.
Natural gas is a cheap source of energy and produces fewer pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. One advantage is that it produces electricity on-demand.
7.Thermal Power Generation:
Thermal power station is power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator.
The disadvantage is that coal mining has deep impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
The combustion of coal also produces gaseous waste such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide etc.
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