Wiring materials and tools

Depending upon the wiring scheme, the following wiring materials are used,
  1. Switches: Tumbler Switch, Flush Switch, Pull Switch, Grid Switch, Rotary Switch etc.
  2. Fuse units: Wire fuse, HRC fuse etc.
  3. Push button Switches
  4. Socket outlets
  5. Plugs
  6. Lamp Holders: Bayonet cap, Screwed, batten holder, pendant holder, fluorescent tube lamp holder, bulk head fitting etc.
  7. Ceiling roses.
  8. Mounting blocks.
  9. Switch boards
  10. Batten.
  11. Conduits.
  12. Wiring Clips and conduct clamps.
  13. Wires and Cables: VIR(Vulcanised India rubber),TRS(Tough Rubber Sheated),PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) WP (Weather Proof Cables), Sheathed Cables, Flexible Chord etc.
  14. Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker(ELCB).
  15. Miniature Circuit Breaker(MCB).
The accessories and tools required for domestic wiring are:

Screw Driver, Side Cutting Plier, Pocket knife, Diagonal Cutting Plier, Hammer, Wood Saw, Hacksaw, Chisels, Hand Drill Machine, Raw plug, Centre punch, Test Lamp, Wire Gauge, Wire stripper, Insulation tape, Tester etc.

Specification of Wires,
  • For domestic wiring copper wires are used.
  • For transmission and distribution purposes aluminium is used.
  • The normal practice to specify wires by insulation, size and no. of cores.
  • Size of core depends on current carrying capabilities.
  • Conductor of larger cross section area are used to carry higher currents and smaller cross section area carry lower currents.
Standard Wire Gauge:
  1. Conductors or wires assigned with specific numbers according to their sizes.
  2. Instead of specifying the size of wire, the respective number is specified and is called standard wire gauge.
  3. The smallest wire is of no.50, that has diameter of 0.001 inch(0.00254cm).
  4. The largest wire is of number 0,000,000 called seven zero and written as 7/0, having diameter of 0.5 inch (1.273cm).
  5. Smaller the diameter of conductor , higher the no. of wire guage. The wires are specified as 1/18,3/22 etc.
  6. Where 1/18 i.e first number gives number of strands and second number indicates the size. Hence 1/18, there is a single strand and diameter of conductor is 18SWG. Similarly 7/22 means seven strands and diameter of conductor is 22SWG.
Types of Wiring:
  1. Cleat Wiring:
  2. Used for temporary wiring. The entire wiring is visible and it can be extended or modified easily. The base is provided with groove to receive wire and top is placed over it and both are secured on the walls using screws. The insulation of wiring gets affected due to weather conditions.
  3. Casing and Capping:
  4. Used for residential building . The casing and capping is made from wood or PVC. Skilled workers are required for preparing casing and capping. This is well suited for small residential buildings.
  5. Batten wiring:
  6. This method of wiring used wooden battens are fixed to the wall or ceiling by means of wooden plugs with wooden screws. The wires are fixed firmly over the batten using nailed clips.
  7. Tough Rubber sheath or Cable Type Sheathed(CTS) wiring:
  8. TRS cables are laid over wooden batten which is fixed on the top surface of the wall. The cables used are flexible.
  9. Metal sheath or Lead sheathed wiring:
  10. The outer sheath of lead alloy is insulated with rubber gives mechanical protection to wire.These cables runs over battens. Sheathed wiring is carried out at placed exposed to sun, rain and damp conditions provided no joints are exposed.
  11. Conduit wiring:
    1. VIR conductors are run through metallic or fibre conduits.
    2. Conduits are enclosed in RCC in Zig zag manner to avoid possible cracksin RCC.
    3. Conduits may also be fixed on to the walls and ceiling by the clamps.
    4. The no. of conductor to be run in conduit depends on the diameter of conduit used.
    5. This method provides good mechanical protection, electrical protection and fire proof etc.
    6. In modern houses, this type of wiring is generally used.

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